Sixth, we examined whether the discordant results between IMS 8 and 10 and the other IMS, which did not meet the `normotypic` performance criteria (i.e. they cut at least one experiment less than 0.85 standard deviation from the mean of the control results), could be due to the fact that IMS 8 and 10 were affected by milder facial paralysis. This was clearly not the case: IMS 10 was one of the participants with the most facial paralysis (see Table 1). Although there are clearly differences between the facial structure of horses and that of humans, there are many similar expressions when it comes to lip and eye movements. Wathan said, “One example is that both horses and humans can raise the skin above their eyes, which seems to happen in negative emotional situations. Another example is the removal of lip corners, which seems to be part of a submissive gesture in horses. The last 30 years of linguistic research on sign languages have shown that there are facial expressions used with manual characters, which act as phonological characteristics, morphemes and syntactic/prosodic markers, for example marking clauses that raise the mix (Liddell, 1980); Dachkovsky and Sandler, 2009). These facial expressions are clearly communicative and are used in combination with other significant movements (those of the hands). Reilly, J. S., McIntire, M., and Bellugi, U. (1990a).
The acquisition of conditions in American sign language – grammatical facial expressions. Appl. Psycholingueur. 11, 369–392. In the last 20 years, another view that indicates that an effective approach (i.e. The rapid and accurate recognition of facial expressions can not be achieved only by visual analysis, but requires a process of motor simulation – an unconscious and discreet imitation of the observed postures or facial movements – significantly increased (Goldman and Sripada, 2005; Ipser and Cook, 2016; Montgomery and Haxby, 2008; Niedenthal et al., 2010; Pitcher et al., 2008; Paracampo et al., 2017). This “motor” view has gained increasing influence in neuroscience, philosophy, neurology and psychiatry, where it is proposed to open up new clinical perspectives for the diagnosis, understanding and rehabilitation of clinical populations suffering from facial impairments such as Parkinson`s disease (Ricciardi et al., 2017), autism (Dapretto et al., 2006; Gordon et al., 2014) and schizophrenia (Torregrossa et al., 2019). While more research is needed to confirm the universality of the “non-face” and determine if there are other universal facial expressions, the study is an important step in understanding the link between facial expressions and spoken language. “The assumption for a long time has been that facial expressions are obligatory movements,” says Lisa Feldman Barrett, a psychologist at Northeastern University in Boston who studies emotions. Benedict Cumberbatch (left) and Kourtney Kardashian (right) both present their doing version of “Not Face” (A, B, C) Distribution of Control Participants (left) and IMS 8 and 10`s (right) percentages of the studies in which they chose each of the six response alternatives when confronted with the six facial expressions shown in Experiment 1 (A).
2 (B) and 3 (C). . . .